Sunday, January 22, 2017

Clarification of MBTI Functions Masterpost

There are a lot of misconceptions out there about the functions. This is my masterpost clarifying their meanings.

There are two judging functions: feeling and thinking. There are two perceiving functions: intuition and sensing. Extroverted functions are objective, introverted functions are subjective.
The extraverted functions, Se/Ne/Te/Fe, are objective because they focus on what is happening collectively in the external world apart from ourselves. Introverted functions, Si/Ni/Ti/Fi, are subjective because they rely on internal filters to process and package information so that it makes sense to us personally. (source)


Many people do not understand that the cognitive function 'feeling' and emotions are two very different things. The cognitive function feeling is about values and decision making. It deals with emotions, but it's not the emotions themselves. Fe is not externalized feelings – selflessness, concern for others, empathy, people pleasing, etc. Fi is just as capable at that as Fe.
The feeling function does not mean you judge things by how they make you feel. It means that you are attuned to either collective or personal values, that one or the other determines your sense of harmony, and it just so happens that a disruption of one’s harmony is very likely to result in an emotional reaction. (source)
Although it’s referred to as “Feeling”, Fi is not internal emotions, but rather values that come from within. FiNe’s might experience a deep well of emotions, but this is not the root of Fi. It is a decision making-process that is very interested in determining its own moral code and what the FiNe’s gut instinct tells them is right, which is often based on how they would like to be treated themselves. They tend to be very considerate of others, and may take a long time to mull over their own beliefs to make sure they seem right. The values-refining process can take quite a bit of time and requires mental solitude. Fi generally puts authenticity in high esteem and is repulsed by anything that seems fabricated or shallow. 
The FiNe’s driving instinct is to achieve inner harmony by remaining true to themselves, their own values, and minimizing the influence that external factors (societal expectations, and maybe even the opinions of friends and family) have on their values. They may love discussing or even debating their values with others, as long as they are able to remain true to themselves while doing so. After a lengthy discussion, FiNe’s need time by themselves to evaluate the conversation and consider what the other person said and how they might fit it into their value system. 
FiNe’s find their own principles to be trustworthy and valuable, and are inherently skeptical of others that try to impose on them. If something does not line up with their beliefs, they cannot act in accordance with it. To go against their own values is to cause inner discord, which FiNe’s can’t tolerate for long. (source) 
Fi is concerned with inner harmony so it is concerned with internal signals of discord/turmoil as a way to gauge whether everything is okay. BUT, one cannot achieve inner harmony without living in a world that is congruent with oneself, i.e., if the external world is always pushing back against your beliefs and values, you can never feel at ease, so healthy Fi must look outward to create an environment/system that gives everyone equal opportunity to achieve inner harmony through promoting universal values. Fi is prone to displaying sensitivity to individuals and alleviating internal conflict/turmoil for self and others but, in doing so, it sometimes has to act on behalf of individuals in a way that inadvertently disrupts the greater good. 
Fi is in touch with its own state of being out of necessity for maintaining inner harmony. 
Fi loyalty comes from one’s own conscience (“I should do this because I know in my bones it’s right/moral”). [cut] Fi loyalty tends to swell into fullness with inner “gut feeling” as one acts in accordance with one’s own values. [cut] Fi tends to sacrifice without thinking much about what will happen next. 
Fi jumps into action much more quickly because conscience compels it to, that is, there is no need to first “check” if it is okay to act. However, unhealthy or immature Fi tends to be extremely self-centered and will place personal needs ahead of others’, whereas mature Fi can instantly place itself directly in another person’s shoes through transferring one’s own personal experience to another and then immediately understand the necessity of acting/sacrificing, often employing Te to form a hasty plan of action. (source) 
Fi’s ultimate goal is to preserve personal/moral integrity. There are many many methods for doing that, some effective, some not. Immature Fi is very easily threatened by feelings of personal invalidation or moral violation and utilizes bad Te strategies to recklessly ameliorate those feelings, e.g., through wanting to lash out at people who are perceived to be morally flawed or through building thick protective moral walls to render oneself untouchable by “impure” external forces. Immature Fi does not realize that these strategies actually sabotage the ultimate goal because your integrity comes at the expense of others, that is, you prop yourself up by damning the world and, paradoxically, you also lower yourself because you are a part of that “damned” world whether you accept it or not (i.e. you are part of the problem). Mature Fi requires mature Te to find the most appropriate strategies for fixing the structural causes of immoral outcomes in order to salvage as much integrity as possible in a morally problematic world (as opposed to targeting the unwitting victims/participants of the system and robbing them of their integrity). Mature Fi sees that there are larger (societal/systemic) forces that influence how people form their value/belief system so it tries to create the conditions in the world that will allow everyone to preserve individual integrity but also understands that sometimes it is necessary to make compromises so as to not let the perfect be the enemy of the good (i.e. respecting individual integrity for all is a higher moral goal than nitpicking every little perceived transgression, and it is also better to make changes to the broader system as opposed to restricting the freedom of individuals by harping on their behaviors). The deeply empathic stance of “live and let live” is absolutely necessary to preserve integrity without descending into the immature trap of damning oneself through damning the world (i.e. “I do not deserve to have my integrity protected if I don’t protect yours with equal fervor”). As long as one remains aligned with the notion of integrity for all, moral progress in the world will continue slowly but steadily. (source
Fi analyzes incoming data to see how it impacts personal experience, using its own state of inner harmony/discord to judge the acceptability of situations, thereby constructing a personal set of unconditional values to guide behavior. In this way, Fi can act in accordance with its own conscience, trying to minimize suffering for oneself (or other people who are perceived to experience similar suffering). Fi feels compelled to follow its own values because it erroneously perceives inferior Te to be threatening and invasive in applying unreasonably impersonal standards and not treating people as truly unique individuals. In other words, at its worst, Fi becomes excessively defensive of its own individuality - it does not know how to fit comfortably into the system of impersonal rules and standards that all individuals are expected to adhere to. Fi can become overly sensitive to anything that might impinge upon individual rights or boundaries. (source)
Whether healthy or unhealthy, there is no middle ground with Fi. As one ENTJ explains, “I’ve seen ENTJs charge into disaster zones as trauma surgeons to the save the lives of complete strangers (2010 Haiti earthquake, 2011 Japan tsunami) but I’ve also sat across them in boardrooms as they raised the prices of cancer medication to pad profits. I rarely see a middle ground with my type, I rarely see apathy, and I rarely see indecision when it comes to values, morals, and ethics. The good news is that for every wannabe bloodthirsty tyrant and sociopathic bully there will always be more moral, stable, successful, and strong ENTJs to meet them head on.”

Extroverted Feeling is best described as a verb. It is not one process or method that can be summed up neatly and efficiently, because it is many processes and methods constantly in motion. An FeNi uses Fe to read the vibes of everyone in the room and is constantly aware of what everyone seems to be thinking and feeling. At the same time, the FeNi uses their own mannerisms, expressions, emotions, and capabilities to influence and help others around them. When the FeNi gets good vibes, feelings, or a sense of something that sparks the FeNi's interest from another person or group of people, the FeNi builds on that expression via their Fe and mirrors it back to them. 
Fe differs from Fi, in that Fi is focused internally and is constantly asking, “How do I feel about this?”, while Fe is focused externally and is constantly asking, “How does the group feel about this?” The main difference between Fe and Fi is that the Fi user can naturally qualify and quantify their own picture of themselves as if they are looking directly into a mirror. For a dominant Fe user, their metaphorical mirror is pointed outward. This means they may know how they feel inside, but they can’t get a clear sense of what that actually means or looks like until they get feedback from others. 
To outsiders who don’t understand an FeNi’s top function, this may look like insecurity. However, the healthy FeNi’s have a strong a sense of themselves. Fe is a data-gathering function, but it cannot objectively gather data about itself, like Fi can. Fe relies on outside sources to gather data it deems accurate. Essentially, Fe is stuck relying on information others give it to create an accurate depiction of something. (source) 
Fe is concerned with group harmony so it is concerned with principles like cooperativeness and unity. BUT, healthy Fe must also factor itself into the group in order to achieve proper harmony for everyone, i.e., it is hard to feel connected to group harmony when you keep sacrificing your own needs for the sake of others. Fe is prone to reflexively smoothing out conflicts and trying to be inclusive but, in doing so, it can sometimes inadvertently ignore people’s individual needs for the sake of the greater good. 
Fe is not in touch with its own state of being due to being focused on others and tends to ignore itself for the sake of group harmony. [cut] Fe loyalty comes from a place of duty or reciprocation (“I should do this for the sake of maintaining the relationship bond”). [cut] This means that Fe loyalty tends to be somewhat “emotionless” or principle-based. [cut] When making a sacrifice, Fe tends to “calculate” the result of the sacrifice beforehand (not always consciously however). [cut] This is because Fe is more in tune with negative social consequences so it will pause or hesitate unless the circumstances are very ethically straightforward. 
Fe tries to accurately read the other person’s emotional state and then has to make a rational decision about whether or not to act, often employing Ti to do a hasty cost-benefit analysis. (source) 
Fe’s ultimate goal is to forge social connection/harmony. There are many many methods for doing that, some effective, some not. Immature Fe is very easily threatened by feelings of social disconnection or rejection and utilizes bad Ti strategies to recklessly ameliorate those feelings, e.g., through policing other people’s behaviors as a means to stamp out conflict and create superficial harmony or through denying and silencing oneself in order to avoid conflict. Immature Fe does not realize that these strategies actually sabotage the ultimate goal due to gradually destroying the quality of relationships over the long run. Mature Fe requires mature Ti to find the most appropriate strategies for solving the problems that divide people in order to salvage any good will that remains when people disagree (as opposed to splitting into teams of “good versus evil” or “us versus them” to achieve a false sense of solidarity). Mature Fe values other people’s perspectives and always tries to maintain social bonds but also understands that sometimes it is necessary to distance from a relationship as amicably as possible due to people having different or conflicting goals/perspectives. The highly reluctant stance of “live and let live” is the strategy of last resort (i.e. everyone has their own perspective and is responsible for their own well-being/decisions at the end of the day, so you cannot dictate other people’s lives). As long as one can keep acrimony to a minimum, the door to reconciliation can remain open. (source)
Fe analyzes the world for customary and reliable social values or codes of etiquette, using them to maintain or improve interpersonal harmony, garnering desirable social rewards whenever possible. In this way, Fe can feel like a well-integrated member of social groups, knowing one’s exact place within the social order and drawing personal strength from a firm sense of unity and cooperation with others. Fe feels compelled to maintain, enforce, or improve upon social values because it wants to avoid the inner turmoil that can be sparked when inferior Ti judgments lead to feelings of rejection or personal inadequacy or existential separation/distance from others. In other words, at its worst, Fe overrides individual or personal needs/feelings in order to maintain surface level social cohesion - it does not know how to incorporate the fundamental human need to be independent and self-sufficient into its conception of the world. Fe can become overly accommodating or dependent upon others’ opinions or signs of social status to define the sense of self. (source) 
When determining the correctness of something, both Te and Fe dominants will primarily look outside themselves for the answers. Both are concerned with externality and are repulsed by (yet often unconsciously obsessed with) internal judgement. This leads to some abuse toward the ego. 
It is not enough that they feel a certain way. It is not enough that they have their inklings and ideologies. They yield themselves to the apparent qualities of the information before them. 
Because they are external judgement functions and not perceiving functions, what doesn’t fit must ultimately be cast aside, obliterated, or “othered.” If othered, it must still be classified. 
Due to their extraversion, their presentation is likely to be “harder” or “no-nonsense” in comparison to their introverted counterparts. [cut] For Fe, the information is filtered and applied to group dynamics. 
Fe is focusing on the alignment of ethically based matters. It creates a criteria or belief to negate concerns. Those concerns are confirmed by the object. What doesn’t fit is often integrated for principle’s sake. Fe confirms its judgement on moral matters by determining the needs and views of people. Alternatively, if it cannot make sense of it, it cannot verify the validity of the claims or data no matter the facts involved (Ti). This can lead to the working of needless details. Because of the need to validate its principles from outside, it can either produce a discrepancy in personal character or a denial of it. 
Fe says, “This is the world, move into it.” 
This shouldn’t be taken to mean that Fe is in anyway softer than Te. Fe shifts its presentation in relation to the object making it often seem more personable and kind. Fe is more likely to respect those that bend their presentation. It doesn’t mean that they will always do so themselves. Despite probably having deeply passionate values, Fe-Ti oriented individuals are often said to create a “hive mind” structure. In its attempt to keep everything cohesive, the principles of the framework may broaden or become so stringent nothing can get through. The logic enforced is more convoluted and not as straightforward even in comparison to a Te inferior. (source) 
Fe, by virtue of being extraverted, is attuned to objective values, or, collective ethics. What is ethical or not is determined by the collective, so we could essentially render it as being the majority rule, and assume that the typical Fe user would embody and exercise the value system they were born into. 
As a result, the belief systems of a Fe user in America, would severely differ from that of one in Iran or China. Likewise by state or province. But regardless, the Fe user will always reference the collective ethics that they have been born into, given, or that they’ve willingly migrated to. That is how they determine right and wrong. 
The second aspect to consider is that of harmony. The Fe user is attuned to the harmony of the group. That harmony is in peril whenever they, or someone else, transgresses the objective values or collective ethics of the group in question. 
The exception is when the function is at its most sophisticated. At that point it no longer assumes that the group determines right and wrong, it starts too look at how things themselves impact the group. That subtle change in perception causes it to suddenly create group values, rather than blindly obey them; which is going to be the key difference between thousands strapping bombs to their chests per year and one Martin Luther King Jr. (source) 
Something not many articles talk about is that strong Fe users (xxFJ's) have a deep need to maintain and support the coming together of their community. You often find them in some form of teaching role. I know an INFJ who's day job is creating training programs for groups, and he is also his minister's right hand at church. He needs and thrives on helping his community come together as one collective whole.


Ti is the function which best lends itself to in-depth logical analysis. It is primarily concerned with solving problems and finding answers, and often prides itself in its ability to be detached from situations in order to be as objective as possible. Ti types are more likely than others to be able to literally shut out emotions and bodily sensations in order to enjoy objectivity. They often do this when problem-solving, meeting a new person, starting a new activity, or arguing using reason. 
Ti differs from Te (external Thinking) in that it doesn’t make near-instantaneous executive decisions. It needs time (could be days, weeks, or decades depending on how complex the topic is) to fully understand things and make decisions about them. This is because Ti-dominant types have a need to explore something in-depth before they feel comfortable coming to a conclusion about it. (source) 
People with Introverted Thinking want the world to make sense in a logical manner. They form an internal framework of how the world works. It is constantly being modified and improved through life experience and experiments. 
Introverted Thinking’s goal is to create a web of knowledge in which everything is interrelated. For example, someone with introverted thinking can find out how a car and all its parts work by relating it to some other system, such as a computer. They have the ability to find commonalities in seemingly unrelated things. 
Introverted Thinking is also great at troubleshooting. Someone with Ti can analyze something, figure out where the problem areas are, and fix them rather quickly. 
Users of Introverted Thinking also strive for efficiency. If something isn’t working well, they can become very frustrated. They have trouble working for bosses that they don’t believe are doing their job well. 
People with Introverted Thinking can be seen as wanting to do things that are “the most effective for the least amount of work.” Some people may see this as laziness, however, it’s a form of perfectionism most Ti users have. 
Ti users tend to be better in a reactive environment; somewhere where their skills can be called upon to “Save the day.” Ti users can create their own systems as well, but they are much better suited for improving an already working, but somewhat dysfunctional system. 
Introverted Thinking has a desire for truth. Someone with Introverted Thinking may take a while to fully understand a concept. This is because they want to know all the components and how everything works together. A Ti user would not be satisfied with someone saying, “this is the gas pedal, you press it to go.” A Ti user would want to know, what happens when you push it, what is the pedal connected to, how does it interact with the engine, etc. 
However, once a Ti user figures out the whole system, everything clicks. They can see how the car and motor works, and how it all fits together. They have created a map and an internal framework, which could be applied to understanding how engines in other machines work. Pieces of this framework could also be used to understand seemingly unrelated concepts, like how a plumbing system works, or how computer programming languages interact with hardware. 
Introverted Thinking wants to create a holistic understanding of the world. Maybe people with Ti appear to others to always be taking “short-cuts” and getting away with it. This may frustrate others or bosses that don’t understand. But in reality, the Ti user has spent a large amount of time and energy figuring out these systems beforehand, so that they are able to see what parts are truly necessary, and which parts can be skipped or eliminated. Problems can occur with Introverted Thinking when the person does not take enough clues from their external environment into consideration. 
Ti can be very stubborn and its users tend to believe they are always right. While they usually are, there are times when they might ignore facts and just revert to thinking about what they already know. This can be very unhealthy and lead to ways of thinking that are not very productive and are possibly detrimental. 
A Ti user would be wise to make sure what they are analyzing is matching up with what is being observed in the external world. (source) 
Ti users form an internal framework of how the world works; and they constantly modify it to make room for improvements or new lessons they’ve learned. [cut] Introverted thinker’s want to create a vast web of knowledge, and find ways in which everything is interrelated. Dominant and Auxiliary Ti users like to take things apart and figure out how they work, they like to troubleshoot and analyze and figure things out. While Te users are more interested in finding a quick solution to organizing the outer world, Ti users love the process of learning itself. They will take their time to look for the very best solution, the most efficient plan. They don’t want to be rushed, they want to get it right. 
Even though they don’t like to be pressured, Ti users love finding ways to get things done efficiently. They also like to figure out how they can do things with the least amount of work; which can sometimes be confused with laziness. While it may seem “lazy” or like a shortcut to other types, their process is incredibly effective. This same rule applies to speech; introverted thinkers are not long-winded, and prefer to say what needs to be said in a concise, efficient manner. They “get to the point” quickly and effectively communicate what needs to be said. 
Introverted thinkers love to solve problems; and they are excellent at improving systems and making things run efficiently. They want to have a full, thorough knowledge of something before moving forward and fixing it. While a Te user likes to get a brief idea of the problem and then jump right into fixing it, a Ti user will want to know all the components and figure out the whole system before they fix it. [cut] Ti users will be more comprehensive and slow to make decisions, keep their logic more internalized, and be more concerned with deeply and intensively working on specific internal frameworks. (source) 
Ti wants to know how to act consistently with one’s own understanding so it focuses on refining personal knowledge of rules through subjective analysis (”x seems true according to my calculations”). 
Ti is concerned with systematically analyzing rules of cause and effect to construct a holistic theory that can adequately explain how an entire system works and then know exactly which parts of the system to adjust for better results, therefore, Ti needs to spend more time analyzing the reasons behind cause and effect and piecing the rules together into a coherent structure. In other words, internal coherence and consistency must be used as the standard of evaluation because of not having objective standards to rely upon like Te. BUT, healthy Ti must not overlook the fact that human knowledge always carries a point of view, i.e., as an individual observer, you have a unique perspective so, in order to achieve a full understanding, you must also factor in how the view of a system changes when observed from different vantage points. Since Ti invests so much time and energy into analysis, it is prone to deeply internalizing the rules that it concludes are true but, in doing so, it can sometimes fail to remember that the conclusions were derived from subjective analysis and therefore subject to change as perspectives shift in the external world. Therefore, Ti-Fe types are always in danger of believing in their own subjective truths without considering how another person in a different position might come to a different conclusion that is equally valid from their subjective vantage point.
Ti organizes information to be internally consistent within one’s own mind. Ti wants to know the mechanisms that underlie cause and effect sometimes even just for the sake of knowing. Ti usually tries to avoid or prevent problems because of being able to calculate probabilities better than Te due to having depth of systematic knowledge. Ti is more prone to procrastination because of requiring more information and time to test conclusions but the conclusions tend to be more accurate. Ti hits a wall when it enacts a rule without thinking enough about how the impact will be perceived from a vantage point that is not one’s own. (source) 
Ti analyzes incoming data for precise cause and effect relationships, using formulaic knowledge to navigate the world coherently, thereby constructing a highly detached and systematic point of view. In this way, Ti can feel comfortably confident and self-sufficient in its own knowledge of the world. Ti feels compelled to remain detached because it erroneously believes that factual knowledge should and can be separated from human perspective and thus perceives inferior Fe to be threatening or meddlesome because people’s “perspectives” are inherently “biased” and considered to be “irrelevant” knowledge. In other words, at its worst, Ti becomes disconnected from people and the world - it does not understand the ways in which people are fundamentally connected and influence each other, unable to acknowledge its own role in social dynamics and thus failing to establish intimacy or proper reciprocation in relationships. Ti can become too narrow in its worldview, arrogant in its knowledge, or reject the necessity of social responsibility. (source) 
Ti users on the other hand add an element of subjectivity to their logical process. By subjectivity I don’t mean the consideration of human elements, but rather the need to personally determine what makes sense to them. Unlike the Te code of logic that anyone can access, Ti logic is personalized and therefore relatively inaccessible to others. Ti has opinions on most things, but is tough to argue with because other people don’t have direct access to the same logical rulebook. Instead of an emphasis on results and external order, Ti manifests as skepticism and a focus on analysis. When Ti is frustrated with others, it’s because it feels like it’s the only one who’s thinking about the issue in the right way, or that no one else can understand the issue with what it considers to be sufficient accuracy. To the Ti user, the process of figuring things out is more stimulating than the end result. 
Common traits of high Ti users: Skeptical and focused on accuracy. Opinionated and analytical. Great at troubleshooting. Speak after reflection with precision. Somewhat unconventional views. May unintentionally seem cold or inconsiderate of others. (source) 
At its core, Ti is subjective logical analysis. It operates with the intent to make logical judgments that are consistent with its understanding of the world. Ti seeks to thoroughly analyze either objective sensory data and the implications of that data (Se-Ni) or abstract connections and their relation to past information (Ne-Si). Ti also provides balance to Fe’s desire to uphold group values by detaching from situations and analyzing from an impersonal, logical perspective. 
I would describe Ti as a highly minimalistic function. Its judgments take on the form of linear reasoning. “If the sky is blue and all blue things are colored, then the sky is colored.” (If a = b and b = c, then a = c.) Basically, it’s like a process of elimination that Ti goes through, step-by-step, to ensure logical accuracy. It cuts out the illogical until only the logical remains, and there it finds the truth it seeks. That’s what people are talking about when they reference Ti’s “framework of logic”. Ti uses that logical framework to continue to make consistent, accurate judgments in the future. It tends to check and recheck its logic because it doesn’t draw from the outer world like an extraverted function. Ti’s judging process is totally internal, so it has to carefully analyze all aspects of an issue in order to arrive at a valid judgment. Honestly, a lot of Ti-users have a “gift” for making things seem logically sound without there being any actual evidence at all to support their reasoning. Their statements may be logically sound, but the premises may be faulty if their perceptions are inaccurate… or they may just be hoping that you don’t notice the holes in their argument, lol. Ti makes judgments supported entirely by one’s own logic, so a Ti-user would be hard-pressed to prove the absolute truth of their reasoning to a Te-user who considers something to be true only when logical evidence exists to prove it. (source) 
A lot of Ti-users get irritable when, after they’ve walked the other person through their reasoning, the person still doesn’t agree with their reasoning. The Ti-user typically thinks,“This makes sense to me, so why can’t they see it as well?” [cut] Ti is purely theoretical. Generally, Ti doesn’t even feel the need to cite sources or provide evidence for their theory. Simply the seemingly indestructible validity of their theory is enough to make it seem real and true in their eyes. [cut] Ti needs their internal world (their own logic) to support an idea’s truth. (source)

Extraverted Thinking (Te) involves Thinking-based judgments that incorporate facts, data, or other objective considerations. Through the impersonal and objectifying lens of Te, the world becomes a giant machine, a system of interrelated parts that predictably functions according to the laws of cause and effect. [cut] An Extraverted Thinking-based, objective approach generally entails measurements and quantitative standards. Never vague or ambiguous, it employs clear definitions, policies, plans, and procedures. It carefully spells out how to get from here to there, using as many maps, directions, and labels as appropriate. The modern world, characterized by a sprawling system of laws and bureaucracy, might be viewed as the offspring of an unchecked Te. (source) 
Extraverted Thinking deals primarily with understanding and organizing the external world. Extraverted Thinking wants everything to make logical sense, and has very little patience of unproductive activities. 
Extraverted Thinking has a desire to control their environment, and can feel lost when they are not able to shape their own external world. 
The Extraverted Thinker sees tasks in logical and sequential order. They can easily determine what steps to take to accomplish a goal, and what order they should be done in. 
The desire for the world to make logical sense can cause strain for more emotional people in the Extraverted Thinkers life. If someone is hurt, they may just be looking for someone to sympathize with them, instead of finding a solution to the problem. The Te user would be wise to recognize their organizational skills may need to take a back seat when it comes to dealing with others and their emotions. Even just listening to the other person without judgment will go a long way. 
Extraverted Thinking is also known to be decisive and make decisions quickly. It may weigh a couple options to see which is better, but it is primarily action oriented. The Extraverted Thinker may say, “okay these two choices are pretty similar. I’m just going to choose this one and get this task over with.” They figure they can accomplish 2-3 more tasks while someone else would still be wasting time figuring out which choice was better or more effective. 
Extraverted Thinking also takes into account certain factors when sizing up a situation. The Te user hiring someone would look at a resume and use their credentials to form an idea of how good of a fit the individual would be. They see the person has a college degree, a 3.5 GPA, good social skills, and an internship in a similar role. They may compare this directly with a candidate that has a college degree, 3.5 GPA, good social skills, but no internship. Therefore, Extraverted Thinking would decide the first candidate is a better fit and hire them. This is obviously a simplistic scenario but it gives you an idea of how Te makes decisions. 
Extraverted Thinkers have also been known to see choices and make important decisions by laying everything out in “Pro-Con” format. The Te user will take everything they know about a situation, and use it to decide whether they should continue with their goal or project, or drop it for something else. (source) 
Extraverted thinking is the process of understanding and organizing the external world through rational, logical thought. Te (extraverted thinking) users want everything to make sense, be in order, and want tasks and projects done quickly. They have little patience for pondering and mulling over decisions, but like to come up with quick, workable plans that they can enforce or get done right away. They are excellent at planning, scheduling, and organizing the environment, sometimes using charts, graphs, outlines, and so on. They are wonderful at delegating to get a job done, and organizing people to make plans and ideas get accomplished. 
Empirical thinking is at the core of extraverted thinking; which is why many extraverted thinkers highly value the “scientific method”. The extraverted thinker can see a plan, an idea, or a concept and quickly come up with a way to make it happen. 
Te-users tend to think rapidly and are usually very decisive. They are constantly analyzing the pros and cons of various decisions and trying to determine which choice makes the most logical sense and will lead to optimal results. 
Extraverted Thinking is very action-oriented, because it focuses more on the outer world of people and things than the internal world. [cut] Extraverted thinkers are often very intelligent, and love to study and learn. However, they also love to get things done. They not only get the ideas, they put the plans into action. They will almost always have a project they will be working on. Maintaining control of their outer environment is very important to Te users; keeping things organized, up-to-date, and efficient is key. [cut] Te users will be much more quick-acting, vocal about their logic, and more concerned with organizing the outer world. (source) 
When determining the correctness of something, both Te and Fe dominants will primarily look outside themselves for the answers. Both are concerned with externality and are repulsed by (yet often unconsciously obsessed with) internal judgement. This leads to some abuse toward the ego. 
It is not enough that they feel a certain way. It is not enough that they have their inklings and ideologies. They yield themselves to the apparent qualities of the information before them. 
Because they are external judgement functions and not perceiving functions, what doesn’t fit must ultimately be cast aside, obliterated, or “othered.” If othered, it must still be classified. 
Due to their extraversion, their presentation is likely to be “harder” or “no-nonsense” in comparison to their introverted counterparts. [cut] For Te, the information is filtered and applied to system dynamics. 
Te is focusing on productivity. It is goal-oriented and not in the idealistic sense, but in the pragmatic sense. What doesn’t get the job done must be ignored. It distrusts conditional statements and will seek a trusted formula, the validity of which is assumed evident. Nearly everything must be coerced to fit the data. The objective can only be misrepresented or misunderstood. For an idea to be recognized and respected, it must have some form of utility. It must allow the best and quickest solution. Alternatively, if the efficiency somehow smothers its individualistic morals, it can cause some neglect in character (Fi) . 
Te-Fi still values individual worth. Like Fi-Te, they are likely to rant in a “man vs society” theme. However, Te-Fi has a tendency to weaponize this mentality. If Fi ideals are not strongly valued, the individual will claim to put their feelings on hold for the sake of the goal. In that case, they don’t recognize that ambition is rooted in emotion. 
Repressing Fi can lead to the Te oriented individual to not realize how deeply those values actually influence them. On the other hand, if Fi ideals are highly valued anything could happen. Te-Fi can promote togetherness, but it will reason it in a Te-like fashion. In this case, it is because that structure has an ultimate end. Te says, “This is the world, take advantage of it.” (source) 
Te wants to know how to integrate successfully into the external world so it focuses on using existing objective standards or principles to guide behavior (”x seems to always get the same result in the world”). 
Te is concerned with finding the objective standards or principles that can achieve the best results, so it does not necessarily care about the standards or principles in themselves but, rather, prefers to focus mostly on the outcome that they produce, which is why Te tends to reason very quickly due to only needing just enough information to secure the result that it is looking for. In other words, a standard or principle is adopted once it is seen as getting results. BUT, healthy Te must not overlook the factors that are unique to a particular situation, i.e., you cannot get great outcomes if you simply take one general principle and apply it with a broad stroke to every situation without any nuance. Te is prone to reflexively applying the best principle that it knows but, in doing so, it can sometimes overgeneralize and come to the wrong conclusion because of overlooking important contextual details/factors. Therefore, Te-Fi types are always in danger of believing that what they think is true will also be true for everyone because the principle is perceived as objective and applicable in all times and places.
Te organizes information using objective standards of measurement in the external world. [cut] Te is satisfied just to know what the most useful cause and effect principle is so that it can get on with achieving the outcome it wants.  [cut] Te makes up for this by having a better grasp of actionable pragmatic standards that yield immediate results, quickly nipping problems in the bud as soon as they arise. [cut] Te makes up for this by being more sensitive and responsive to negative consequences so that behavior can be readjusted quickly when necessary (i.e. Ti can be better at avoiding mistakes; Te can be better at responding quickly to mistakes). [cut] Te hits a wall when it cannot let go of an “objective” standard or principle that is no longer applicable because of context or because conditions have changed. (source) 
Te analyzes the world for clear-cut and reliable causal relationships, using them to create universal standards of operation/conduct to achieve the best possible outcomes. In this way, Te can feel confident in being an integral part of the world by efficiently achieving goals or competently solving problems. Te feels compelled to maintain, enforce, or improve upon those standards because it wants to avoid the inner turmoil that can be sparked when inferior Fi perceives a situation to be nonsensical or unpredictable. In other words, at its worst, Te overrides individual or personal needs/feelings in order to maintain structural order - it does not know how to incorporate irrational, idiosyncratic, or unpredictable elements into its plans or conception of the world. Te can become insensitive in its treatment of individuals or too driven to define the sense of self through conforming with external standards of success or achievement. (source) 
Te is purely objective decision-making. Its objectivity is twofold: first it doesn’t consider human elements (emotions, values, feelings) like Fe and Fi, and second, unlike Ti, it references a universal code of logic that theoretically anyone could understand. What’s true or false, right or wrong, valid or invalid, useful or extraneous is seen as an objective certainty. This level of mental clarity allows the user to make logical judgments quickly and with confidence. This manifests as decisive, blunt, action-oriented behavior. The way they see it, Te users have access to the same “truth” as everyone else, so they are likely to get impatient when other people slow them down with reasoning based on subjective criteria, or with a general lack of application of shared logical principles. To Te users, the result of logical decision-making is more motivating than the process of figuring things out. 
Common traits of high Te users: Direct, action-oriented, and somewhat blunt. Seek efficiency and objectivity. Speak as if there’s a period at the end of each sentence. Usually organized. Results oriented and ambitious. May experience outbursts of negative emotion. (source) 
Te-users tend to get irritable when they provide the other person with “unshakable” evidence to support their claim, only for that person to totally disregard it. The Te-user often thinks,“The evidence is right in front of them, so why do they still refuse the truth?” [cut] Te: a function that needs the evidence that Ti tends to disregard. Seemingly “valid” theorizing isn’t enough for Te. It needs to see, in solid form, in reality, that something is utterly true. In short: Te needs the external world (observable logic) to support an idea as truth. (source)


Intuition is always abstract.

Ni is an introverted perception function, meaning it's not making any kind of value judgments. It's only taking in impressions – as many different possible interpretations of the significance of any given idea or event as possible. [cut] Ni is picking one idea or event at a time and examining (“from a clean slate”, as Yukawa says) every angle of every component of that one thing in order to find any as-of-yet untried interpretations that might cause us to view the whole issue in an entirely new light. 
A substantial strength (and also potentially a weakness--as Ni should be the first to point out!) of Ni is that it can simultaneously make use of two mindsets that Ji would almost certainly consider incompatible, because it's good at finding unique interpretations that would allow both positions to (potentially) be true. 
Ni on its own doesn't really care whether either position or both or neither is “true”; it's merely a perceptive function, and thus not in the business of declaring such value judgments as truth or falsehood. It merely condenses different interpretations of how things might be understood into elegantly simple conclusions that borrow the useful elements of each, while eliminating those which conflict with each other in order to generate uniquely subjective and personalized conceptual paradigms. Ni, left to its own devices, can potentially justify anything. (source)  
Ni works by simplifying complex problems into their component parts and slowly turning each one over to see how it looks from a different angle. Sometimes, if you look for it long enough and thoroughly enough, there's an angle nobody else has thought to look at or make use of yet. (source)  
Both Pi functions (Ni and Si) are concerned with generating internalized impressions of past experience--in this way they are quite similar. But while Si depends on specific and concrete sensory data to build its personal conceptual map of meaning, Ni instead depends on more vague and loosely defined skeletons of the intangible and abstract relationships between ideas. It can't build a map as thorough and complete as that of an Si type who has directly experienced all of the information in a given area, but it can use the conceptual outlines of its own experiences to "fill in the blanks" and predict how related experiences that it hasn't actually had will feel in terms of the personal impression they create. 
Often, the way a particular piece of information strikes them is simply too dependent upon the assumptions inherent in Ni's worldview to make its significance meaningful to anyone else. Putting it into words ruins the point because words are yet another limited medium which carries too many inherent assumptions to fully carve out an effective vocabulary for the conceptual impressions in which Ni specializes. 
Ni is much more comfortable “imploding” into an overarching interpretation that combines many different disparate elements into one more cohesive whole. 
Ni simply notes the general ideas implied by conceptual impressions, and from there it's not a difficult jump to imagine how they might be deconstructed or rearranged for different purposes. Ni dominants are often surprised and a little perplexed that others don't naturally see the unstated meaning that characterizes their entire self-experience.Ni dislikes forcing rationalized structure onto its conceptual impressions because that structure is bound to operate under a certain set of assumptions which may prematurely (and without even realizing it) eliminate the very kind of information Ni is interested in: using past experiences with related conceptual frameworks to eliminate the barriers on its holistic understanding of symbols and the meaning they signify. (source) 
Since Ni is a Perceiving function, INJs often report that its workings often feel effortless. When INJs express the need to “think about” something, this means something very different from what it might for other types. Namely, the lion’s share of INJs’ “thinking” or cognitive processing occurs outside of their conscious awareness. Their best thinking is typically done without thinking, at least not consciously. For INJs, “sleeping on” a problem is as sure a route to a solution as any. 
Because it does much of its work subconsciously, Ni can seem to have a certain magical quality about it. In fact, it is not unusual for INJs to be viewed as having some degree of psychic or prophetic abilities. Despite its magical appearance, Ni can be understood on a rational basis. What seems to be occurring is that many INJs have a highly sensitive inferior function, Extraverted Sensation (Se), which gathers copious amounts of sensory information from the outside world, including subtleties that other personality types tend to miss. Their Ni then subconsciously processes this data in order to make sense of it, like assembling pieces of a puzzle. Once finished, Ni generates an impression that seems to come out of “nowhere.” But the fact is that the intuition did not come out of nowhere, but from a synthesis of sensory data gathered from the immediate environment combined with information from the INJ’s own psyche. 
It is often said that human beings rely more heavily on vision than any of the other senses. This seems especially true of INJs, who often report a strong visual element to their Introverted Intuition. They often think by way of images rather than words. Their intuitions often manifest in the form of symbols, images, dreams, or patterns. This is consistent with Jung’s characterization of the Ni type as a dreamer, artist, or seer. There is a distinct visual character to these notions, which is why vision-related terms—foresight, insight, seer, visionary, etc.—are invariably used in describing INJs. 
Considering the visual nature of Ni, it is no surprise that many INJs are highly sensitive to beauty—visual, metaphorical, or otherwise. French philosopher and INTJ Jean Paul Sartre confessed: “I’m only a desire for beauty.” Another INTJ, Frederich Nietzsche, wrote that “life is only valuable as an aesthetic phenomenon.” What seems to be of great irony here is the fact that, at least superficially, INJs seem to be valuing aesthetics in a way similar to their typological opposites, ESPs. The apparent reason for this is that INJs and ESPs use Se as part of their functional stack. The difference is that ESPs use Se more consciously, while INJs do so more unconsciously. This explains why INJs, the most otherworldly and abstract types, are often perplexed by their felt need to create beauty and immerse themselves in beautiful surroundings. 
Of all types, INJs are those most concerned with the “big picture.” This can be understood in terms of their Ni, which is the most abstract and forward-looking of all functions. Ni is comprehensive and holistic. Its visions, answers, and insights manifest as comprehensive wholes. Consequently, INJs often feel more like recipients than they do creators of their ingenious ideas. 
Because of the inherent sense of completeness in Ni-spawned insights, INJs often feel they have been granted a sneak preview of the future, or at least a vision of a possible future. This strong sense of foresight can serve as the driving force behind their desire to see their ideals actualized. 
While not technically a judging function, Ni often functions in a convergent fashion, providing elegant answers and solutions to complex problems. As discussed above, Ni takes clues gathered by Se and unconsciously pieces them together toward a comprehensive solution. INJs commonly report that the solution arrives through a single flash of insight—an “aha!” moment. This may occur while dreaming or awake, but tends to come suddenly and all at once, like an unexpected gift. INJ philosopher Frederich Nietzsche describes his intuitive process this way: 
Something profoundly convulsive…suddenly becomes visible and audible with indescribable definiteness and exactness…There is an ecstasy whose terrific tension is sometimes released by a flood of tears…There is a feeling that one is utterly out of hand…Everything occurs without volition, as if an eruption of freedom, independence, power, and divinity. The spontaneity of the images and similes is most remarkable; one loses all perception of what is imagery and simile; everything offers itself as the most immediate, exact, and simple means of expression. 
The powerful means by which Introverted Intuition reveals its solution are associated with a gut sense of conviction and certainty. INJs “know” at a deep intuitive level that it is correct. But they cannot stop there. Once they have received the intuition, they must work to flesh it out. They must articulate and illustrate it in order to render it accessible and useful to others. This is where their auxiliary function, either Fe or Te, enters the picture, helping them unpack their vision, sort of like decompressing a computer file. This process can at times be difficult and painstaking, sometimes taking longer than birthing the vision itself. But in order for others to trust and get behind it, INJs must do their best to translate their vision into words, images, or formulas. (source) 
Introverted Intuition (Ni) deals with understanding how the world works through internal intuitive analysis. Ni relies on gut feelings and intuition about a situation to help them understand. Introverted Intuition does not look at what is seen. Introverted Intuition forms an internal map and framework of how things work. The map is slowly adapted and adjusted over time to allow the user to get a better sense of the “big picture of things” and what steps to take to get the desired outcome. 
Introverted Intuition will take pieces of abstract information and make sense of it. It is not interested so much in concrete facts, as it is with the essence of ideas and theories, and how they all fit together. They are very good at recognizing patterns. 
Introverted Intuition may sense that something is off. They may notice a person’s tone of voice, a momentary pause, or body language that is incongruent to how they typically behave. These factors are observed in a more abstract way, making it difficult for the Ni user to explain their conclusion to others. They just get an overall feel or aura of the situation. 
Introverted Intuition will recall the essence of what happened and how events eventually played out. Ni users can take past experiences to assess a current situation, and then use this memory bank of experiences of what they sense will happen to envision whether a plan will be successful. 
Ni users are also good at creating a persona. They understand how the world perceives people. They can create a vision of what they want to become, and take steps toward accomplishing their goal. For example, an Ni user can notice “If I wear a this suit here and present my story this way, I have a good chance of getting an investment for my business.” They understand what objects and events symbolize and how they can use them to their advantage. 
Introverted Intuition asks questions like “what’s really going on here?” or “where have I felt this way before?” Introverted Intuition is one of the toughest functions to explain to someone else that doesn’t have it. Because of this, Ni has been labeled as “mystical” and “psychic.” And sure, it can appear that way to others, but it is more complex and involved than just “magically” coming to conclusions. 
Remember that Introverted Intuition is only as good as all the experiences one has had in their life. Denying new experiences will cause Ni to be less accurate over time. Extraverted Feeling and Extraverted Thinking deal more with observing the outside world. This will give the Ni user a sense of balance and better understanding of what is going on outside of their heads, as well as help ground the user. Going into new situations and observing without a preconceived bias will help the person to understand the dynamics of the world. The Ni user would do best to come to their conclusions after the experience is over instead of during it. (source) 
Ni scans the world for patterns of contextual factors, remembering vague connections between objects and events (and not necessarily the objects/details in themselves), thereby integrating new knowledge into a vast subconscious web of interconnected abstract relationships. In this way, Ni builds up a network of personally meaningful symbolic patterns that can spark intuitive predictions about how a new situation will turn out. Ni feels insecure because inferior Se produces a chaotic mass of incoming data regarding how the external world is constantly shifting and changing, thus, Ni feels compelled to look for meaningful patterns for predicting what might happen, but this means that it tends to overlook important concrete facts and details that do not fit into those conceptual patterns. In other words, at its worst, Ni feels as though it is chronically overthinking about what things mean, trying to extract clues about the “one true future” that will come into being - it does not know how to deal with changing facts in the world until some abstract meaning/pattern can be applied to them. Ni can become rigid and unrealistic in its future outlook or become too protective of one’s personalized conceptual vision. (source) 
Ni: Perceives underlying patterns & principles on causation, filters unnecessary information easily. Summarizes concepts to its core statements. Convergent thinking. On topics of interest, can offer endless information and nuances; very deep. Processes world internally, strong link to unconscious (my opinion). Allows individual to "see" people without explaining why. (Why Ni-dominants are known as Master Minds and Mystics/Counselors) (source)

Ne is picking up a lot of different events and ideas at once and looking for common threads between them. (source) Ne explodes into a million new places from one starting point. (source) 
As Pe dominants, they have high thresholds for external stimulation, and they may find themselves desperately in need of more experiences, more interests, more hobbies--anything that provides more options for different methods of exploration into new areas that might provide interesting connections to even newer areas we don't even know about yet. Dominant Ne tends to think in a sort of outwardly spiraling web of free association--casting a net out into the sea of all possibilities, no matter how seemingly trivial, and picking out broad, macro-level similarities between contexts never before considered similar. Indeed, ENFPs can pick out some sort of similarity or conceptual connection between virtually anything, and can often be spotted via their continual insistence on pointing out and describing these free associations to others. Since it depends on objective, external information, dominant Ne must have a core group of individuals against whom it can check the "interest level" and flow of its ideas. From an Ne standpoint, if I can't make others understand it, how can I expect to connect it to any other external application or development? 
Because the Ne dominant learns new ideas through the same process--constructing conceptual metaphors that represent relationships between new ideas by observing similarities between them--he may find, much to his own surprise, that he's likely very good at finding similar conceptual relationships that will clarify ideas and concepts for others. His extroverted need to make others understand his ideas in order to understand them himself may become an unlikely strength: it facilitates a robust level of communication that grants ENFPs their reputation as teachers, innovators, and personal motivators. (source) 
Since Intuition is a Perceiving function and Ne is extraverted in its direction, an overarching purpose of Ne involves acquiring information from the outside world. Ne is similar to Extraverted Sensing (Se) in that it prompts extraverted exploration in an open-ended fashion. This allows Perceiving types to readily adapt to and blend with their circumstances rather than trying to change or control hem. 
While Se involves apprehension of information through one or more of the primary senses, Extraverted Intuition does goes beyond or looks behind sense data. This allows NPs to discern otherwise hidden patterns, possibilities, and potentials. 
Extraverted Intuition scans for relationships or patterns within a pool of ideas, facts, or experiences. In conjunction with either Ti or Fi, it helps NPs formulate and modify ideas. NPs commonly employ their Ne in activities such as reading, conversation, and engagement with nature or the arts. 
While NPs’ Ti or Fi pushes for closure, their Ne counters by rallying for more options and alternatives. In many cases, Ne wins out, interjecting enough new or contradictory information to keep NPs in a state of perpetual openness or indecision. At times, this can serve as a source of frustration for NPs, making it difficult for them to make decisions or draw firm conclusions. But one of the benefits of Ne is it helps them remain open-minded. It allows NPs to see truth on both sides of an issue without forming premature conclusions. This makes them good listeners and well-suited to act as fair and effective arbiters. 
While openness to multiple perspectives is a signature strength of NPs, it can sometimes hamper their productivity and follow-through. Leaning too heavily on their Ne can seduce them into chasing too many rabbit trails and to lose sight of their original focus. This may be a problem, for instance, for NP writers, whose attraction to tangents and asides can be frustrating for readers seeking a more streamlined discussion. 
Extraverted Intuition can also help NPs sniff out intriguing possibilities. It can help NP entrepreneurs read trends and identify promising opportunities. 
Ne also contributes a sense of wonderment toward life’s mysteries and contingencies. This is why NPs often enjoy the role of wanderer or seeker. Only rarely do NPs know exactly what they are seeking, but Ne confers a sense of blind anticipation, a sense of excitement regarding who or what will manifest next on their life’s journey. Relatedly, Ne can take on a mystical flavor, involving an openness or curiosity toward what God or the universe might have in store at any given moment. 
Ne is also sensitive to ambience. When introduced to new setting, NPs typically do not attune to specific objects or details (Se), but are more aware of the vague feelings or impressions that emerge. NPs know almost immediately whether they like “the feel” of a given environment. Since they are not attuned to sensory details, they can be oblivious to things other types may consider blatantly obvious, causing them to appear naive, dreamy, or absent-minded. 
Finally, Ne can contribute to a persistent sense of restlessness or dissatisfaction. NPs can find themselves wanting to escape certain situations or circumstances in order to experience more novelty, freedom, or autonomy. They might feel compelled to quit their job, break off a relationship, or ditch a lame party in hopes of discovering something more exciting or inspirational. Those who consistently act on these promptings can be perceived as fickle, irresponsible, or self-indulgent. (source) 
Extraverted Intuition (Ne) deals with experiencing the outer world, noticing possibilities, and what could be. Ne deals with seeing how all things in life are interrelated, and allows the user to see the world in multiple different perspectives. 
Extraverted Intuition is always seeing possibilities. They always want to know “what could be”. They are adept at understanding the external environment, but they always want to take it one step further. They wonder, “if I change this, what will happen?”The Ne user is always striving for growth or improvement. Extraverted Intuition can give them a sense of idealism and the desire to want to impact the world. 
Extraverted Intuition also has the ability to make obscure connections. The Ne user can take two seemingly unrelated topics and bring them together. This can also cause the user to have an off-beat sense of humor. 
Extraverted Intuition is a right brained function. The Ne user tends to have a very creative mind. The world and workplaces tend to favor left brained activities, so it would be wise for the Ne user to develop a creative outlet for this function, whether it’s through writing, music, art, or any other activity that allows self expression. 
Extraverted Intuitives also have a very entrepreneurial mindset. Ne users see possibilities of what could be all around them. They have a desire to make things happen and “put a dent in the world.” Extraverted Intuitives can get very excited about these possibilities, making them naturally charismatic. Ne users can be inspiring leaders that are catalysts for change. 
People with Extraverted Intuition should seek to find a position or niche in the world where they can lead a team to promote change. This would be very fulfilling for them and help them to grow as a person. 
Extraverted Intuition can also cause some problems. People with heavy use of Ne always have a desire for things to change. This can cause problems in relationships. They can have a tendency to become bored and want to move on once they have figured everything out. 
The desire for change can also cause health and other problems. The Ne user’s desire for novel experiences may cause them to neglect daily needs. They may ignore resting when they are sick, or eating a proper diet. They also can be bad with money management, performing daily routines, and paying bills. If these issues are neglected for too long, they can become a point of stress. 
One area that an Extraverted Intuition user should be careful to pay attention to is seeking too much external output. If the user is only focusing on new experiences without taking the time for personal reflection, they may just be spinning their wheels are not learning anything. (source) 
Ne scans the world for abstract connections that spark new and interesting potential to pursue, wanting to realize change/progress as quickly as possible, thereby making the most of favorable environmental conditions. In this way, Ne is highly flexible and adapts very quickly, efficiently taking advantage of future-oriented ideas to make improvements and move up/forward in the world. Ne feels compelled to chase after interesting ideas and possibilities as soon as they arise moment to moment but, because of inferior Si, neglects personal priorities and physical well-being, undervaluing the need for past knowledge or incremental learning. In other words, at its worst, Ne overextends itself because of being addicted to chasing external possibilities, too easily distracted and not following through with ideas to their conclusion - it does not know how to categorize and piece together concrete details in a manner that produces depth of expertise because of having too many gaps in its knowledge of the world. Ne can become too scattered, unrealistic, or absurd in the ideas/possibilities that it entertains, unable to achieve real tangible progress. (source) 
Ne: Continuously connects patterns & principles (brainstorming, tangential-thinking, possibility). Ability to connect one topic to several. Divergent & novel thinking. Absorbs information through the external world; individual acts as a social experimenter to shape hypothesis of the world. Enables individual to "see" potential and possibility in others and society. (Why Ne-dominants are known as Champions and Visionaries). (source)

Both Ni and Ne are convergent and divergent in different ways. Ni is convergent when it implodes into a single answer, and divergent when it analyzes “every angle of every component of that one thing.” Ne is convergent when it connects many different things by a single theme/concept, and divergent when it explodes outward by jumping from thing to thing/connection to connection.


Sensing is never abstract.

Introverted Sensing (Si), by contrast, relates to inner bodily sensations such as pain, hunger, thirst, internal temperature, numbness, tingling, muscle tension, etc. 
While Introverted Sensing can attune to immediate inner sensations (a role that, by the way, is commonly overlooked), it is also associated with remembering and preserving past ways of doing things. I like to think of Si as a synopsis of one’s personal past, in which all of one’s past experiences are condensed into a specific view of the past. For Si types (SJs), in particular, the things that are most prominent and cherished in this Si perspective are those which are most routine and familiar. There seems to be a quantitative factor at work in Si. The more times something is done—eating a certain meal, hearing a specific song, etc.—the more preferable it becomes. It was probably an Si type who, in noticing how his tastes changed with repeated exposures, coined the phrase “it will grow on me.” In many cases, if you can get an SJ to keep trying something, there’s a good chance they will come to enjoy it (or at least better tolerate it). (source) 
Introverted Sensing deals primarily with recalling facts and details of past events. The Si user has a great memory and is able to recall experiences from the past with great accuracy. The Si user believes the past is a very good indicator of future events and uses it as a guideline when making decisions. 
Introverted Sensing is very tradition and ritual oriented. They hold on to these traditions very closely and are the most active in their family when it comes to honoring them. For example, the Si user can become very sentimental around Thanksgiving and Christmas and expect all their family members to be there. They can also work very hard and performing the same role every year, whether it is carving the turkey, setting up the Christmas tree, or cooking for everyone. The Introverted Sensor sees these events as symbolic and meaningful and would feel a bit lost without them. 
Introverted Sensors are also very consistent and hard working. They see the role they are in as their duty, and they take pride in performing it to the best of their ability. They tend to know all the facts and rules that their role or job entails and make sure to adhere to them. They tend to enjoy being in a predictable system with a steady paycheck that gives them job security. The Si user will strive to find a comfort zone to stay in and will do whatever they can to preserve it. Change and unpredictability is unsettling to the Introverted Sensor and can make them feel lost. 
A problem that can occur with Introverted Sensing is that if it is relied upon to heavily, the person may never have new life experiences. They may just continue doing what they have always done. Without new experiences, how does the Si user know whether or not there is something out there that is more enjoyable? (source) 
Si scans the world for familiar sensory facts and details, categorizing them according to one’s previous experiences, thereby integrating new details in a methodical, sequential, or incremental manner. In this way, Si builds up a database of personally meaningful facts and details that can be used as a practical comparison for understanding a new situation. Si feels insecure because inferior Ne produces intuitions about negative possibilities in the external world, thus, Si feels compelled to prepare for those negative possibilities by carefully sorting through incoming details, but it is impossible to be fully prepared because there are simply too many ways in which things can go wrong. In other words, at its worst, Si feels chronically unprepared for all the things that might happen in the future - it does not know how to predict the future and skews towards negative interpretations. Si can feel paralyzed about decision making or too risk averse because of this. (source)

Extraverted Sensing (or what Jung called Extraverted Sensation) occurs by way of the five primary senses (sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste). 
More broadly, Se can be understood to involve a concern for the concrete events happening around us. This not only includes noticing sensory details such as sights, smells, and movements, but also things like trends, fashions, and styles. While all personality types rely on vision for everyday functioning, Se types seem especially attuned to visual input. This is why they (SPs) tend to be more concerned about their appearance, as well as appearances in general, than Si types (SJs) are. SPs seek pleasure and Se takes great pleasure in perceiving both physical beauty and sensory novelty. Their penchant for sensory novelty is why SPs are commonly described as thrill-seekers or hedonists. Se is also engaged by physical action. SPs love perceiving and physically responding to environmental cues. This why they often take up work as first responders, athletes, mechanics, chefs, and the like. (source) 
Extraverted Sensing deals primarily with experiencing and perceiving the outside world in the present moment. Extraverted Sensors see, feel, touch, smell, and listen to everything that is going on in the external world. They are constantly taking in new experiences and sizing up the situations of the world around them. 
Extraverted Sensors live in the present. They thrive on new and exciting experiences. They are typically athletic and like to display their talents to the world. They also have a keen eye for aesthetics and have an enjoyment for “the finer things in life.” 
They enjoy exotic trips, fine dining, and adrenaline packed experiences. They Se user may find themselves bored with routines and feel the need to do something that makes them feel more free and alive. Extraverted Sensors also tend to be the life of the party. They enjoy fun get togethers and try to make sure everyone is having a good time. 
Extraverted Sensing is also good at sizing up a situation. They seem to almost intuitively know what they can get away with in a certain situation and just how far they can push it. This comes from experience of taking risks, being burned, and eventually understanding where the line is that they can’t cross. 
Extraverted Sensing users may also agree with the phrase, “It is harder to get permission than it is to ask for forgiveness.” The Se user may just jump into something new at first and want to figure it all out. 
However, a couple problems can arise when this Extraverted Sensing goes unchecked. The user may become reckless and unknowingly hurt those around them. Constantly playing into their whims may cause the Se user to make poor financial decisions. They may tend to value the present moment too much, at the expense of jeopardizing their future. (source) 
Se scans the world for new or unique sensory facts and details, interacting with them as quickly as possible, maximizing positive feedback from the environment through making the most of changing circumstances. In this way, Se is highly flexible and adapts very quickly to whatever happens, learning fast and efficiently on the fly by adjusting behavior according to the feedback received. Se feels compelled to chase after sensory stimulation as soon as positive opportunities arise moment to moment but, because of inferior Ni, fails to accurately envision how such actions will be meaningful for personal future development. In other words, at its worst, Se becomes addicted to environmental stimulation and feedback - it does not know how to properly attribute meaning and sorely miscalculates the potential of new situations to produce (long term) positive/negative outcomes. Se can become overactive or try to avoid any situation that is perceived as negative or having no immediate impact/resolution. (source)
I wish to close by referring you to two more articles.

The first is Myers-Briggs Personalities and Morality. It is a good general overview of the four types of morality that the 16 types have.

The second is How Each Cognitive Function Manifests Based On Its Position In Your Stacking. It is a good overview on how the stacking influences the functions. Of course, for the greatest detail you should read specific articles about whichever type you are researching. 

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